Advertisement

Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease and the Unified Airway

A Contemporary Review
Published:October 22, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.otc.2022.09.008

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Samter M.
        • Beers R.F.
        Concerning the nature of intolerance to aspirin.
        J Allergy. 1967; 40: 281-293
        • Samter M.
        • Beers R.F.
        Intolerance to aspirin. Clinical studies and consideration of its pathogenesis.
        Ann Intern Med. 1968; 68: 975-983
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • Levy J.M.
        NSAID-ERD Syndrome: the new hope from prevention, early diagnosis and new therapeutic targets.
        Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2020; 20: 10
        • Stevens W.W.
        • Peters A.T.
        • Hirsch A.G.
        • et al.
        Clinical characteristics of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017; 5: 1061-1070
        • Kshirsagar R.S.
        • Chou D.W.
        • Wei J.
        • et al.
        Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: longitudinal assessment of a large cohort and implications of diagnostic delay.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2019; 10: 465-473
        • Stevenson D.
        • Szczeklik A.
        Clinical and pathologic perspectives on aspirin sensitivity and asthma.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006; 118: 773-786
        • White A.A.
        • Stevenson D.D.
        Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2018; 379: 1060-1070
        • Szczeklik A.
        • Nizankowska E.
        • Duplaga M.
        Natural history of aspirin-induced asthma. AIANE Investigators. European network on aspirin-induced asthma.
        Eur Resp J. 2000; 16: 432-436
        • Ma C.
        • Mehta N.K.
        • Nguyen S.
        • et al.
        Demographic variation in chronic rhinosinusitis by subtype and region: a systematic review.
        Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2022; 36: 367-377
        • Roland L.T.
        • Wang H.
        • Mehta C.C.
        • et al.
        Longitudinal progression of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: analysis of a national insurance claims database.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2019; 9: 1420-1423
        • Buchheit K.
        • Bensko J.C.
        • Lewis E.
        • et al.
        The importance of timely diagnosis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease for patient health and safety.
        World J Otorhinolaryngol. 2020; 6: 203-206
        • Dominas C.
        • Gadkaree S.
        • Maxfield A.Z.
        • et al.
        Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: A review.
        Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 2020; 5: 360-367
        • Haque R.
        • White A.A.
        • Jackson D.J.
        • et al.
        Clinical evaluation and diagnosis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021; 148: 283-291
        • Gudziol V.
        • Michel M.
        • Sonnefeld C.
        • et al.
        Olfaction and sino-nasal symptoms in patients with CRSwNP and AERD and without AERD: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.
        Eur Arch Ororhinolaryngol. 2017; 274: 1487-1493
        • DeGregorio G.A.
        • Singer J.
        • Cahill K.
        • et al.
        A one-day, 90-minute aspirin challenge and desensitization protocol in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019; 7: 1174-1180
        • Cahill K.N.
        • Murphy K.
        • Singer J.
        • et al.
        Plasma tryptase elevation during aspirin-induced reactions in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019; 143 (e792): 799-803
        • Blanca-Lopez N.
        • Haroun E.
        • Ruano F.J.
        • et al.
        ASA challenge in children with hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs differentiate between cross-intolerant and selective responders.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018; 6: 1226-1232
        • Kowalski M.L.
        • Agache I.
        • Bavbeck S.
        • et al.
        Diagnosis and management of NSAID-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (N-ERD) -- a EAACI position paper.
        Allergy. 2019; 74: 28-39
        • Cardet J.C.
        • White A.A.
        • Barrett N.A.
        • et al.
        Alcohol-induced respiratory symptoms are common in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014; 2: 208-213
        • Brigham E.P.
        • West N.E.
        Diagnosis of asthma: diagnostic testing.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015; 5: S27-S30
        • Orlandi R.R.
        • Kingdom T.T.
        • Smith T.L.
        International consensus statement on allergy and rhinology: rhinosinusitis 2021.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2021; 11: 213-739
        • Malfitano M.J.
        • Santarelli G.D.
        • Gelpi M.
        • et al.
        A comparison of sphenoid sinus osteoneogenesis in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2021; 35: 172-178
        • Baudrand H.
        • Zaouche S.
        • Dubost R.
        • et al.
        Aspirin hypersensitivity: characteristics and diagnostic approach [in French].
        Rev Mal Respir. 2015; 32: 221-228
        • White A.A.
        • Bosso J.V.
        • Stevenson D.D.
        The clinical dilemma of "silent desensitization" in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Allergy Asthma Proc. 2013; 34: 378-382
        • Stevens W.W.
        • Jerschow E.
        • Baptist A.P.
        • et al.
        The role of aspirin desensitization followed by oral aspirin therapy in managging patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: a work group report from the rhinitis, rhinosinusitis and ocular allergy committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021; 147: 827-844
        • Cahill K.N.
        Immunologic effects of aspirin desensitization and high-dose aspirin therapy in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021; 148: 344-347
        • White A.A.
        • Bigby T.
        • Stevenson D.
        Intranasal ketorolac challenge for the diagnosis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006; 97: 190-195
        • Li K.L.
        • Lee A.Y.
        • Abuzeid W.M.
        Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Management.
        Med Sci. 2019; 7: 45
        • Waldram J.
        • Walters K.
        • Simon R.
        • et al.
        Safety and outcomes of aspirin desensitization for aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: a single center study.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018; 141: 250-256
        • Laitinen L.A.
        • Laitinen A.
        • Haahtela T.
        • et al.
        Leukotriene-E(4) and granulocytic infiltration into asthmatic airways.
        Lancet. 1993; 341: 989-990
        • Daffern P.J.M.D.
        • Hugli T.E.
        • Stevenson D.D.
        Association of urinary leukotriene E4 excretion during aspirin challenges with severity of respiratory responses.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999; 104: 559-564
        • Choby G.
        • O'Brien E.K.
        • Smith A.
        • et al.
        Elevated urine leukotriene E4 is associated with worse objective markers in nasal polyposis patients.
        Laryngoscope. 2020; 131: 961-966
        • Choby G.
        • Low C.M.
        • Levy J.M.
        • et al.
        Urine leukotriene E4: implications as a biomarker in chronic rhinosinusitis.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2022; 166: 224-232
        • Lueke A.J.
        • Meeusen J.W.
        • Donato L.J.
        • et al.
        Analytical and clinical validation of an LC-MS/MS method for urine leukotriene E4: a marker of systemic mastocytosis.
        Clin Biochem. 2016; 49: 979-982
        • Divekar R.
        • Hagan J.
        • Rank M.
        • et al.
        Diagnostic utility of urinary LTE4 in asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and aspirin sensitivity.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016; 4: 665-670
        • Higashi N.
        • Taniguchi M.
        • Mita H.
        • et al.
        Clinical features of asthmatic patients with increased urinary leukotriene E4 excretion (hyperleukotrienuria): involvement of chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 113: 277-283
        • Mohebati A.
        • Milne G.L.
        • Zhou X.K.
        • et al.
        Effect of zileuton and celecoxib on urinary LTE4 and PGE-M levels in smokers.
        Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015; 6: 646-655
        • Hahn J.
        • Appel H.
        • Scheithauer M.O.
        • et al.
        Symptom control of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps under maintenance therapy with daily acetylsalicylic acid.
        Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2020; 34: 554-563
        • Bosso J.V.
        • Locke T.B.
        • Kuan E.C.
        • et al.
        Complete endoscopic sinus surgery followed by aspirin desensitization is associated with decreased overall corticosteroid use.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020; 10: 1043-1048
        • Hagan J.B.
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • Divekar R.
        • et al.
        Urinary leukotriene E4 to determine aspirin intolerance in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016; 5: 990-997
        • Sousa A.R.
        • Parikh A.
        • Scadding G.
        • et al.
        Leukotriene receptor expression on nasal mucosal inflammatory cells in aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis.
        N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 1493-1499
        • Cahill K.N.
        • Bensko J.C.
        • Joyce J.A.
        • et al.
        Prostaglandin D(2): a dominant mediator of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015; 135: 245-252
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • Boyce J.A.
        Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease - new prime suspects.
        N Engl J Med. 2016; 374: 484-488
        • Antoine C.
        • Murphy R.C.
        • Henson P.M.
        • et al.
        Time-dependent utilization of platelet arachidonic acid by the neutrophil in formation of 5-lipoxygenase products in platelet-neutrophil co-incubations.
        Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992; 1128: 139-146
        • Raiden S.
        • Schettini J.
        • Salamone G.
        • et al.
        Human platelets produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and delay eosinophil apoptosis.
        Lab Investig. 2003; 83: 589-598
        • Bartemes K.R.
        • Choby G.
        • O'Brien E.K.
        • et al.
        Mass cytometry reveals unique subsets of T cells and lymphoid cells in nasal polyps from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).
        Allergy. 2021; 76: 2222-2226
        • Kuan E.C.
        • Kennedy W.P.
        • Patel N.N.
        • et al.
        Pre-intervention SNOT-22 scores predict outcomes in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Am J Otolaryngol. 2021; 42: 103025
        • Spielman D.B.
        • Overdevest J.
        • Gudis D.A.
        Olfactory outcomes in the management of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease related chronic rhinosinusitis.
        World J Otorhinolaryngol. 2020; 6: 207-213
        • Jerschow E.
        • Edin M.L.
        • Chi Y.
        • et al.
        Sinus surgery is associated with a decrease in aspirin-induced reaction severity in AERD patients.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019; 7: 1580-1588
        • Shah S.J.
        • Abuzeid W.M.
        • Ponduri A.
        • et al.
        Endoscopic sinus surgery improves aspirin treatment response in AERD patients.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2019; 9: 1401-1408
        • Adelman J.
        • McLean C.
        • Shaigany K.
        • et al.
        The role of surgery in management of Samter's Triad: a systematic review.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016; 155: 220-237
        • Loftus C.A.
        • Soler Z.M.
        • Koochakzadeh S.
        • et al.
        Revision surgery rates in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: a meta-analysis of risk factors.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020; 10: 199-207
        • DeConde A.S.
        • Suh J.D.
        • Mace J.C.
        • et al.
        Outcomes of complete vs targeted approaches to endoscopic sinus surgery.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015; 5: 691-700
        • Muhonen E.G.
        • Goshtasbi K.
        • Papagiannopoulos P.
        • et al.
        Appropriate extent of surgery for aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        World J Otorhinolaryngol. 2020; 6: 235-240
        • Grose E.
        • Lee D.J.
        • Yip J.
        • et al.
        Surgical outcomes in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease without aspirin desensitization.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020; 10: 1149-1157
        • Schlosser R.J.
        Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: personalized medical and surgical approaches.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020; 10: 1035-1036
        • Bosso J.V.
        • Tripathi S.H.
        • Kennedy D.W.
        • et al.
        Multidisciplinary single-center outcomes compared to two-center outcomes for the treatment of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021; 9: 2498-2500
        • Shih L.C.
        • Patel V.S.
        • Choby G.W.
        • et al.
        Evolution of the endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Laryngoscope. 2018; 128: 317-326
        • Bassiouni A.
        • Wormald P.J.
        Role of frontal sinus surgery in nasal polyp recurrence.
        Laryngoscope. 2013; 123: 36-41
        • Morrissey D.K.
        • Bassiouni A.
        • Pstaltis A.J.
        • et al.
        Outcomes of modified endoscopic Lothrop in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease with nasal polyposis.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2016; 6: 820-825
        • Patel V.S.
        • Choby G.
        • Shih L.C.
        • et al.
        Equivalence in outcomes between Draf 2B vs Draf 3 frontal sinusotomy for refractory chronic frontal rhinosinusitis.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2018; 8: 25-31
        • Choby G.
        • Nayak J.V.
        The "Cross-court draf IIb" procedure for advanced nasal septum or frontal sinus pathology and nasal septum pathology.
        Laryngoscope. 2018; 128: 1527-1530
        • Bhalla V.
        • Sykes K.J.
        • Villwock J.A.
        • et al.
        Draf IIB with superior septectomy: finding the "middle ground.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2019; 9: 281-285
        • Larivee N.
        • Chin C.J.
        Aspirin desensitization therapy in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: a review.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020; 10: 450-464
        • Sommer D.D.
        • Rotenberg B.W.
        • Sowerby L.J.
        • et al.
        A novel treatment adjunct for aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease: the low-salicylate diet: a multicenter randomized control crossover trial.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2016; 6: 385-391
        • Levy J.M.
        • Rudmik L.
        • Peters A.T.
        • et al.
        Contemporary management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease: an evidence-based review with recommendations.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2016; 6: 1273-1283
        • Schneider T.R.
        • Johns C.B.
        • Palumbo M.L.
        • et al.
        Dietary fatty acid modification for the treatment of Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease: a prospective pilot trial.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018; 6: 825-831
        • Zeiger R.S.
        • Szefler S.J.
        • Phillips B.R.
        • et al.
        Response profiles to fluticasone and montelukast in mild-to-moderate persistent childhood asthma.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006; 117: 45-52
        • Dahlen S.E.
        • Malmstron K.
        • Nizankowska E.
        • et al.
        Improvement of aspirin-intolerant asthma by montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
        Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2002; 165: 9-14
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • Gakpo D.
        • Bensko J.C.
        • et al.
        Leukotriene-associated rash in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020; 8: 3170-3171
        • Von Ta
        • White A.A.
        Survey-defined patient experiences with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015; 3: 711-718
        • Dahlen B.
        • Nizankowska E.
        • Szczeklik A.
        • et al.
        Benefits from adding the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton to conventional therapy in aspirin-intolerant asthmatics.
        Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 1998; 147: 1187-1194
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • Fuentes D.J.
        • Want Y.
        Efficacy of zileuton in patients with asthma and history of aspirin sensitiity: a retrospective analysis of data from two phase 3 studies.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017; 139: 1
        • Sansing-Foster V.
        • Haug N.
        • Mosholder A.
        • et al.
        Risk of psychiatric adverse events among montelukast users.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021; 9 (e312): 385-393
        • Watkins P.B.
        • Dube L.M.
        • Walton-Bowen K.
        • et al.
        Clinical pattern of zileuton-associated liver injury: results of a 12-month study in patients with chronic asthma.
        Drug Saf. 2007; 30: 805-815
        • Ramos C.L.
        • Woessner K.M.
        Updates on treatment options in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022; 22: 50-54
        • Sweis A.M.
        • Locke T.B.
        • Ig-Izevbekhai K.I.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of endoscopic sinus surgery and aspirin therapy in the management of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Allergy Asthma Proc. 2021; 42: 136-141
        • Ryan L.
        • Segarra D.
        • Tabor M.
        • et al.
        Systematic review of outcomes for endoscopic sinus surgery and subsequent aspirin desensitization in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        World J Otorhinolaryngol. 2020; 6: 220-229
        • Chen J.R.
        • Buchmiller B.L.
        • Khan D.A.
        An Hourly Dose-Escalation Desensitization Protocol for Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015; 3: 926-931
        • Pelletier T.
        • Roizen G.
        • Ren Z.
        • et al.
        Comparable safety of 2 aspirin desensitization protocols for aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019; 7: 1319-1321
        • Cooper T.
        • Greig S.R.
        • Zhang H.
        • et al.
        Objective and subjective sinonasal and pulmonary outcomes in aspirin desensitization therapy: a prospective cohort study.
        Auris Nasus Larynx. 2019; 46: 526-532
        • Locke T.B.
        • Swies A.M.
        • Gleeson P.K.
        • et al.
        Age as a factor in treatment of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: relationship to required aspirin maintenance dose after desensitization.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020; 10: 1180-1181
        • Arm J.P.
        • O'Hickey S.P.
        • Spur B.W.
        • et al.
        Airway responsiveness to histamine and leukotriene E4 in subjects with aspirin-induced asthma.
        Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989; 140: 148-153
        • Adappa N.D.
        • Ranasinghe V.J.
        • Trope M.
        • et al.
        Outcomes after complete endoscopic sinus surgery and aspirin desensitization in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2018; 8: 49-53
        • Cho K.S.
        • Soudry E.
        • Psaltis A.J.
        Long-term sinonasal outcomes of aspirin desensitization in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014; 151: 575-581
        • Chaaban M.R.
        • Moffatt D.
        • Wright A.E.
        • et al.
        Meta-analysis exploring sinopulmonary outcomes on aspirin desensitization in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2021; 164: 11-18
        • Arnold M.
        • Kuruvilla M.
        • Levy J.M.
        • et al.
        Dupilumab improves alcohol tolerance in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021; 127: 379-381
        • Bosso J.
        Aspirin desensitization for aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease in the era of biologics: clinical perspective.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2021; 11: 822-823
        • Berges-Gimeno M.P.
        • Simon R.A.
        • Stevenson D.D.
        Long-term treatment with aspirin desensitization in asthmatic patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003; 111: 180-186
        • Sweis A.M.
        • Locke T.B.
        • Ig-Izevbekhai K.I.
        • et al.
        Major complications of aspirin desensitization and maintenance therapy in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2021; 11: 115-119
        • D'Souza G.E.
        • Nwagu U.
        • Barton B.
        • et al.
        Outcomes of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease in patients treated with aspirin desensitization and biologics.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2021; 12: 306-309
        • Bavaro N.
        • Gakpo D.
        • Mittal A.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of dupilumab in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease and previous inadequate response to anti-IL-5 or anti-IL-5Ra in a real-world setting.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021; 9: 2910-2912
        • Castro M.
        • Corren J.
        • Pavord I.D.
        • et al.
        Dupilumab Efficacy and Safety in Moderate-to-Severe Uncontrolled Asthma.
        N Engl J Med. 2018; 378: 2486-2496
        • Barnes P.
        The cytokine network in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
        Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009; 41: 631-638
        • Oykhman P.
        • Paramo F.A.
        • Bousquet P.J.
        • et al.
        Comparative efficacy and safety of monoclonal antibodies and aspirin desensitization for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022; 149: 1286-1295
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • Mullol J.
        • Fan C.
        • et al.
        Dupilumab improves nasal polyp burden and asthma control in patients with CRSwNP and AERD.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019; 7: 2462-2465
        • Bachert C.
        • Han J.K.
        • Desrosie M.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of dupilumab in patients with severe chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (LIBERTY NP SINUS-24 and LIBERTY NP SINUS-52): results from two multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase 3 trials.
        Lancet. 2019; 394: 1638-1650
        • Wangberg H.
        • Spierling Bagsic S.R.
        • Osuna L.
        • et al.
        Appraisal of the real-world effectiveness of biologic therapies in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021; 10: 478-484
        • Mustafa S.S.
        • Vadamalai K.
        • Scott B.
        • et al.
        Dupilumab as add-on therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis for nasal polyposis in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2021; 35: 399-407
        • Patel P.
        • Bensko J.C.
        • Bhattacharyya N.
        • et al.
        Dupilumab as an adjunct to surgery in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2022; 128: 326-328
        • Buchheit K.M.
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • Levy J.M.
        Immunology-based recommendations for available and upcoming biologics in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021; 148: 348-350
        • Tuttle K.L.
        • Buchheit K.M.
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • et al.
        A retrospective analysis of mepolizumab in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018; 6: 1045-1047
        • Buchheit K.M.
        • Lewis E.
        • Gakpo D.
        • et al.
        Mepolizumab targets multiple immune cells in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021; 148: 574-584
        • Han J.K.
        • Bachert C.
        • Fokkens W.
        • et al.
        Mepolizumab for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (SYNAPSE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
        Lancet Respir Med. 2021; 9: 1141-1153
        • Workman A.D.
        • Bleier B.S.
        Biologic therapies versus surgical management for aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: a review of preliminary data, efficacy, and cost.
        World J Otorhinolaryngol. 2020; 6: 230-234
        • Hayashi H.
        • Mitsui C.
        • Nakatani E.
        Omalizumab reduces cysteinyl leukotriene and 9α,11β-prostaglandin F2 overproduction in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016; 137: 1585-1587
        • Hayashi H.
        • Fukutomi Y.
        • Mitsui C.
        • et al.
        Omalizumab for aspirin hypersensitivity and leukotriene overproduction in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: a randomized controlled trial.
        Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2020; 201: 1488-1498
        • Gevaert P.
        • Omachi T.A.
        • Corren J.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of omalizumab in nasal polyposis: 2 randomized phase 3 trials.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020; 146: 595-605
        • Quint T.
        • Dahm V.
        • Ramazanova D.
        • et al.
        Omalizumab-induced aspirin tolerance in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-exacerbated respiratory disease patients is independent of atopic sensitization.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021; 10: 506-516
        • Laidlaw T.
        Aspirin desensitization vs biologics for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021; 126: 118-119
        • Parasher A.K.
        • Gliksman M.
        • Segarra D.
        • et al.
        Economic Evaluation of Dupilumab Versus Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for the Treatment of Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyps.
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1002/alr.22936
        • Phillips K.M.
        • Hoehle L.P.
        • Bergmark R.W.
        • et al.
        Chronic rhinosinusitis severity is associated with need for asthma-related systemic corticosteroids.
        Rhinology. 2017; 55: 211-217
        • Phillips K.M.
        • Bergmark R.W.
        • Hoehle L.P.
        • et al.
        Chronic rhinosinusitis exacerbations are differentially associated with lost productivity based on asthma status.
        Rhinology. 2018; 56: 323-329
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • Mullol J.
        • Woessner K.M.
        • et al.
        Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and asthma.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021; 9: 1133-1141
        • Yamashita T.
        • Tsuji H.
        • Maeda N.
        • et al.
        Etiology of nasal polyps associated with aspirin-sensitive asthma.
        Rhinol Suppl. 1989; 8: 15-24
        • Batra P.S.
        • Tong L.Y.
        • Citardi M.J.
        Analysis of Comorbidities and Objective Parameters in Refractory Chronic Rhinosinusitis.
        Laryngoscope. 2013; 123: S1-S11
        • Bochenek G.
        • Szafraniec K.
        • Kuschill-Dziurda J.
        • et al.
        Factors associated with asthma control in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Respir Med. 2015; 109: 588-595
        • Schlosser R.J.
        • Smith T.L.
        • Mace J.
        • et al.
        Asthma quality of life and control after sinus surgery in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
        Allergy. 2017; 72: 483-491
        • Ragab S.
        • Scadding G.K.
        • Lund V.J.
        • et al.
        Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis and its effects on asthma.
        Eur Resp J. 2006; 28: 68-74
        • Ikeda K.
        • Tanno N.
        • Tamura G.
        • et al.
        Endoscopic sinus surgery improves pulmonary function in patients with asthma associated with chronic sinusitis.
        Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1999; 108: 355-359
        • Lourijsen E.S.
        • Reitsma S.
        • Vleming M.
        • et al.
        Endoscopic sinus surgery with medical therapy versus medical therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2022; 10: 337-346
        • Ledford D.K.
        • Wenzel S.E.
        • Lockey R.F.
        Aspirin or Other Nonsteroidal Inflammatory Agent Exacerbated Asthma.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014; 2: 653-657
        • Li K.L.
        • Fang C.H.
        • Ferastraoaru D.
        • et al.
        Patient Satisfaction and Efficiency Benefits of a Novel Multidisciplinary Rhinology and Allergy Clinic.
        Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2020; 129: 699-706
        • Bochenek G.
        • Kuschill-Dziurda J.
        • Szafraniec K.
        • et al.
        Certain subphenotypes of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease distinguished by latent class analysis.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014; 133: 98-103
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • Kidder M.S.
        • Bhattacharyya N.
        • et al.
        Cysteinyl leukotriene overproduction in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease is driven by platelet-adherent leukocytes.
        Blood. 2012; 119: 3790-3798
        • Laidlaw T.M.
        • Cahill K.N.
        • Cardet J.C.
        • et al.
        A trial of P2Y12 receptor inhibition with prasugrel identifies a potentially distinct endotype of patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018; 143: 316-324
        • Corren J.
        • Parnes J.P.
        • Wang L.
        • et al.
        Tezepelumab in Adults with Uncontrolled Asthma.
        N Engl J Med. 2017; 377: 936-946
        • Menzies-Gow A.
        • Corren J.
        • Bourdin A.
        • et al.
        Tezepelumab in Adults and Adolescents with Severe, Uncontrolled Asthma.
        N Engl J Med. 2021; 384: 1800-1809
        • Gauvreau G.M.
        • O'Byrne P.M.
        • Boulet L.P.
        • et al.
        Effects of an anti-TSLP antibody on allergen-induced asthmatic responses.
        N Engl J Med. 2014; 370: 2102-2110
        • Cahill K.
        Fevipiprant in CRSwNP and comorbid asthma: wrong target population or wrong PGD2 receptor?.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2022.03.001