Advertisement

Imaging of Parathyroid Glands

  • David Chien
    Affiliations
    Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 North Caroline Street, JHOC 3235, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Heather Jacene
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 North Caroline Street, JHOC 3235, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Search for articles by this author

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Marx S.J.
        Hyperparathyroid and hypoparathyroid disorders.
        N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 1863-1875
        • Geatti O.
        • Shapiro B.
        • Orsolon P.G.
        • et al.
        Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography.
        Eur J Nucl Med. 1994; 21: 17-22
        • Ishibashi M.
        • Nishida H.
        • Hiromatsu Y.
        • et al.
        Localization of ectopic parathyroid glands using technetium-99m sestamibi imaging: comparison with magnetic resonance and computed tomographic imaging.
        Eur J Nucl Med. 1997; 24: 197-201
        • Ishibashi M.
        • Nishida H.
        • Hiromatsu Y.
        • et al.
        Comparison of technetium-99m-MIBI, technetium-99m-tetrofosmin, ultrasound and MRI for localization of abnormal parathyroid glands.
        J Nucl Med. 1998; 39: 320-324
        • Peeler B.B.
        • Martin W.H.
        • Sandler M.P.
        • et al.
        Sestamibi parathyroid scanning and preoperative localization studies for patients with recurrent/persistent hyperparathyroidism or significant comorbid conditions: development of an optimal localization strategy.
        Am Surg. 1997; 63: 37-46
        • Melloul M.
        • Paz A.
        • Koren R.
        • et al.
        99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy of parathyroid adenomas and its relation to tumour size and oxyphil cell abundance.
        Eur J Nucl Med. 2001; 28: 209-213
        • Falke T.H.M.
        • Sandler M.P.
        • Schipper J.
        Parathyroid glands.
        in: Sandler M.P. Coleman R.E. Diagnostic nuclear medicine. 3rd edition. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (MD)1994: 991-1012
        • Billotey C.
        • Sarfati E.
        • Aurengo A.
        • et al.
        Advantages of SPECT in technetium-99m-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy.
        J Nucl Med. 1996; 37: 1773-1778
        • Blanco I.
        • Carril J.M.
        • Banzo I.
        • et al.
        Double-phase Tc-99m sestamibi scintigraphy in the preoperative location of lesions causing hyperparathyroidism.
        Clin Nucl Med. 1998; 23: 291-297
        • Civelek A.C.
        • Ozalp E.
        • Donovan P.
        • et al.
        Prospective evaluation of delayed technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT scintigraphy for preoperative localization of primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Surgery. 2002; 131: 149-157
        • Hindie E.
        • Melliere D.
        • Jeanguillaume C.
        • et al.
        Parathyroid imaging using simultaneous double-window recording of technetium-99m-sestamibi and iodine-123.
        J Nucl Med. 1998; 39: 1100-1105
        • Lavely W.C.
        • Goetze S.
        • Friedman K.P.
        • et al.
        Comparison of SPECT/CT, SPECT, and planar imaging with single- and dual-phase (99m)Tc-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy.
        J Nucl Med. 2007; 48: 1084-1089
        • Moka D.
        • Voth E.
        • Dietlein M.
        • et al.
        Technetium 99m-MIBI-SPECT: a highly sensitive diagnostic tool for localization of parathyroid adenomas.
        Surgery. 2000; 128: 29-35
        • Perez-Monte J.E.
        • Brown M.L.
        • Shah A.N.
        • et al.
        Parathyroid adenomas: accurate detection and localization with Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT.
        Radiology. 1996; 201: 85-91
        • Sfakianakis G.N.
        • Irvin III, G.L.
        • Foss J.
        • et al.
        Efficient parathyroidectomy guided by SPECT-MIBI and hormonal measurements.
        J Nucl Med. 1996; 37: 798-804
        • Taillefer R.
        • Boucher Y.
        • Potvin C.
        • et al.
        Detection and localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with hyperparathyroidism using a single radionuclide imaging procedure with technetium-99m-sestamibi (double-phase study).
        J Nucl Med. 1992; 33: 1801-1807
        • Ruda J.M.
        • Hollenbeak C.S.
        • Stack Jr., B.C.
        A systematic review of the diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism from 1995 to 2003.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005; 132: 359-372
        • Loftus K.A.
        • Anderson S.
        • Mulloy A.L.
        • et al.
        Value of sestamibi scans in tertiary hyperparathyroidism.
        Laryngoscope. 2007; 117: 2135-2138
        • Ansquer C.
        • Mirallie E.
        • Carlier T.
        • et al.
        Preoperative localization of parathyroid lesions. Value of 99mTc-MIBI tomography and factors influencing detection.
        Nuklearmedizin. 2008; 47: 158-162
        • Carlier T.
        • Oudoux A.
        • Mirallie E.
        • et al.
        99mTc-MIBI pinhole SPECT in primary hyperparathyroidism: comparison with conventional SPECT, planar scintigraphy and ultrasonography.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008; 35: 637-643
        • Jorna F.H.
        • Jager P.L.
        • Que T.H.
        • et al.
        Value of 123I-subtraction and single-photon emission computed tomography in addition to planar 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy before parathyroid surgery.
        Surg Today. 2007; 37: 1033-1041
        • Lorberboym M.
        • Minski I.
        • Macadziob S.
        • et al.
        Incremental diagnostic value of preoperative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT in patients with a parathyroid adenoma.
        J Nucl Med. 2003; 44: 904-908
        • Sharma J.
        • Mazzaglia P.
        • Milas M.
        • et al.
        Radionuclide imaging for hyperparathyroidism (HPT): which is the best technetium-99m sestamibi modality?.
        Surgery. 2006; 140: 856-863
        • Harris L.
        • Yoo J.
        • Driedger A.
        • et al.
        Accuracy of technetium-99m SPECT-CT hybrid images in predicting the precise intraoperative anatomical location of parathyroid adenomas.
        Head Neck. 2008; 30: 509-517
        • Neumann D.R.
        • Obuchowski N.A.
        • Difilippo F.P.
        Preoperative 123I/99mTc-sestamibi subtraction SPECT and SPECT/CT in primary hyperparathyroidism.
        J Nucl Med. 2008; 49: 2012-2017
        • Serra A.
        • Bolasco P.
        • Satta L.
        • et al.
        Role of SPECT/CT in the preoperative assessment of hyperparathyroid patients.
        Radiol Med. 2006; 111: 999-1008
        • Shen W.
        • Duren M.
        • Morita E.
        • et al.
        Reoperation for persistent or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Arch Surg. 1996; 131: 861-867
        • Ho Shon I.A.
        • Yan W.
        • Roach P.J.
        • et al.
        Comparison of pinhole and SPECT 99mTc-MIBI imaging in primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Nucl Med Commun. 2008; 29: 949-955
        • Nichols K.J.
        • Tomas M.B.
        • Tronco G.G.
        • et al.
        Preoperative parathyroid scintigraphic lesion localization: accuracy of various types of readings.
        Radiology. 2008; 248: 221-232
        • Tomas M.B.
        • Pugliese P.V.
        • Tronco G.G.
        • et al.
        Pinhole versus parallel-hole collimators for parathyroid imaging: an intraindividual comparison.
        J Nucl Med Technol. 2008; 36: 189-194
        • Alexandrides T.K.
        • Kouloubi K.
        • Vagenakis A.G.
        • et al.
        The value of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative localization of parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and concomitant thyroid disease.
        Hormones (Athens). 2006; 5: 42-51
        • Apostolopoulos D.J.
        • Houstoulaki E.
        • Giannakenas C.
        • et al.
        Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin for parathyroid scintigraphy: comparison to thallium-technetium scanning.
        J Nucl Med. 1998; 39: 1433-1441
        • Fjeld J.G.
        • Erichsen K.
        • Pfeffer P.F.
        • et al.
        Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin for parathyroid scintigraphy: a comparison with sestamibi.
        J Nucl Med. 1997; 38: 831-834
        • Wakamatsu H.
        • Noguchi S.
        • Yamashita H.
        • et al.
        Technetium-99m tetrofosmin for parathyroid scintigraphy: a direct comparison with (99m)Tc-MIBI, (201)Tl, MRI and US.
        Eur J Nucl Med. 2001; 28: 1817-1827
        • Duarte P.S.
        • Domingues F.C.
        • Costa M.S.
        • et al.
        Discordant results in Tc-99m tetrofosmin and Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphies.
        Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2007; 51: 1166-1168
        • Froberg A.C.
        • Valkema R.
        • Bonjer H.J.
        • et al.
        99mTc-tetrofosmin or 99mTc-sestamibi for double-phase parathyroid scintigraphy?.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2003; 30: 193-196
        • Giordano A.
        • Meduri G.
        • Marozzi P.
        • et al.
        Differences between 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin uptake in thyroid and salivary glands: comparison with 99mTc-pertechnetate in 86 subjects.
        Nucl Med Commun. 2003; 24: 321-326
        • Harrell R.M.
        • Mackman D.M.
        • Bimston D.N.
        Nonequivalent results of tetrofosmin and sestamibi imaging of parathyroid tumors.
        Endocr Pract. 2006; 12: 179-182
        • Lorberboym M.
        • Ezri T.
        • Schachter P.P.
        Preoperative technetium Tc 99m sestamibi SPECT imaging in the management of primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with concomitant multinodular goiter.
        Arch Surg. 2005; 140: 656-660
        • Palestro C.J.
        • Tomas M.B.
        • Tronco G.G.
        Radionuclide imaging of the parathyroid glands.
        Semin Nucl Med. 2005; 35: 266-276
        • Bergson E.J.
        • Sznyter L.A.
        • Dubner S.
        • et al.
        Sestamibi scans and intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurement in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004; 130: 87-91
        • Bhatnagar A.
        • Vezza P.R.
        • Bryan J.A.
        • et al.
        Technetium-99m-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy: effect of P-glycoprotein, histology and tumor size on detectability.
        J Nucl Med. 1998; 39: 1617-1620
        • Katz S.C.
        • Wang G.J.
        • Kramer E.L.
        • et al.
        Limitations of technetium 99m sestamibi scintigraphic localization for primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiglandular disease.
        Am Surg. 2003; 69: 170-175
        • Kandil E.
        • Tufaro A.P.
        • Carson K.A.
        • et al.
        Correlation of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with severity of primary hyperparathyroidism and likelihood of parathyroid adenoma localization on sestamibi scan.
        Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008; 134: 1071-1075
        • Parikshak M.
        • Castillo E.D.
        • Conrad M.F.
        • et al.
        Impact of hypercalcemia and parathyroid hormone level on the sensitivity of preoperative sestamibi scanning for primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Am Surg. 2003; 69: 393-398
        • Royal R.E.
        • Delpassand E.S.
        • Shapiro S.E.
        • et al.
        Improving the yield of preoperative parathyroid localization: technetium Tc 99m-sestamibi imaging after thyroid suppression.
        Surgery. 2002; 132: 968-974
        • Friedman K.
        • Somervell H.
        • Patel P.
        • et al.
        Effect of calcium channel blockers on the sensitivity of preoperative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT for hyperparathyroidism.
        Surgery. 2004; 136: 1199-1204
        • Gupta Y.
        • Ahmed R.
        • Happerfield L.
        • et al.
        P-glycoprotein expression is associated with sestamibi washout in primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Br J Surg. 2007; 94: 1491-1495
        • Pons F.
        • Torregrosa J.V.
        • Fuster D.
        Biological factors influencing parathyroid localization.
        Nucl Med Commun. 2003; 24: 121-124
        • Yamaguchi S.
        • Yachiku S.
        • Hashimoto H.
        • et al.
        Relation between technetium 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile accumulation and multidrug resistance protein in the parathyroid glands.
        World J Surg. 2002; 26: 29-34
        • Melton G.B.
        • Somervell H.
        • Friedman K.P.
        • et al.
        Interpretation of 99mTc sestamibi parathyroid SPECT scan is improved when read by the surgeon and nuclear medicine physician together.
        Nucl Med Commun. 2005; 26: 633-638
        • Gough I.
        Reoperative parathyroid surgery: the importance of ectopic location and multigland disease.
        ANZ J Surg. 2006; 76: 1048-1050
        • Liew V.
        • Gough I.R.
        • Nolan G.
        • et al.
        Re-operation for hyperparathyroidism.
        ANZ J Surg. 2004; 74: 732-740
        • Rodriquez J.M.
        • Tezelman S.
        • Siperstein A.E.
        • et al.
        Localization procedures in patients with persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism.
        Arch Surg. 1994; 129: 870-875
        • Jaskowiak N.T.
        • Sugg S.L.
        • Helke J.
        • et al.
        Pitfalls of intraoperative quick parathyroid hormone monitoring and gamma probe localization in surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Arch Surg. 2002; 137: 659-668
        • Chou F.F.
        • Lee C.H.
        • Chen H.Y.
        • et al.
        Persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism after total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation.
        Ann Surg. 2002; 235: 99-104
        • Weber C.J.
        • Sewell C.W.
        • McGarity W.C.
        Persistent and recurrent sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism: histopathology, complications, and results of reoperation.
        Surgery. 1994; 116: 991-998
        • Itoh K.
        • Ishizuka R.
        Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy for recurrent hyperparathyroidism after total parathyroidectomy with autograft.
        Ann Nucl Med. 2003; 17: 315-320
        • Bozkurt M.F.
        • Ugur O.
        • Hamaloglu E.
        • et al.
        Optimization of the gamma probe-guided parathyroidectomy.
        Am Surg. 2003; 69: 720-725
        • Casara D.
        • Rubello D.
        • Piotto A.
        • et al.
        99mTc-MIBI radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroid surgery planned on the basis of a preoperative combined 99mTc-pertechnetate/99mTc-MIBI and ultrasound imaging protocol.
        Eur J Nucl Med. 2000; 27: 1300-1304
        • Casara D.
        • Rubello D.
        • Cauzzo C.
        • et al.
        99mTc-MIBI radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: experience with patients with normal thyroids and nodular goiters.
        Thyroid. 2002; 12: 53-61
        • Rubello D.
        • Pelizzo M.R.
        • Boni G.
        • et al.
        Radioguided surgery of primary hyperparathyroidism using the low-dose 99mTc-sestamibi protocol: multiinstitutional experience from the Italian Study Group on Radioguided Surgery and Immunoscintigraphy (GISCRIS).
        J Nucl Med. 2005; 46: 220-226
        • Rubello D.
        • Giannini S.
        • Martini C.
        • et al.
        Minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy.
        Biomed Pharmacother. 2006; 60: 134-138
        • Mariani G.
        • Gulec S.A.
        • Rubello D.
        • et al.
        Preoperative localization and radioguided parathyroid surgery.
        J Nucl Med. 2003; 44: 1443-1458
        • Murphy C.
        • Norman J.
        The 20% rule: a simple, instantaneous radioactivity measurement defines cure and allows elimination of frozen sections and hormone assays during parathyroidectomy.
        Surgery. 1999; 126: 1023-1028
        • Chen H.
        • Mack E.
        • Starling J.R.
        Radioguided parathyroidectomy is equally effective for both adenomatous and hyperplastic glands.
        Ann Surg. 2003; 238: 332-337
        • McGreal G.
        • Winter D.C.
        • Sookhai S.
        • et al.
        Minimally invasive, radioguided surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Ann Surg Oncol. 2001; 8: 856-860
        • Perrier N.D.
        • Ituarte P.H.
        • Morita E.
        • et al.
        Parathyroid surgery: separating promise from reality.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 1024-1029
        • Chen H.
        • Sippel R.S.
        • Schaefer S.
        The effectiveness of radioguided parathyroidectomy in patients with negative technetium tc 99m-sestamibi scans.
        Arch Surg. 2009; 144: 643-648
        • Ahuja A.T.
        • Wong K.T.
        • Ching A.S.
        • et al.
        Imaging for primary hyperparathyroidism—what beginners should know.
        Clin Radiol. 2004; 59: 967-976
        • Hindie E.
        • Ugur O.
        • Fuster D.
        • et al.
        2009 EANM parathyroid guidelines.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009; 36: 1201-1216
        • Tublin M.E.
        • Pryma D.A.
        • Yim J.H.
        • et al.
        Localization of parathyroid adenomas by sonography and technetium tc 99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography before minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: are both studies really needed?.
        J Ultrasound Med. 2009; 28: 183-190
        • De Feo M.L.
        • Colagrande S.
        • Biagini C.
        • et al.
        Parathyroid glands: combination of (99m)Tc MIBI scintigraphy and US for demonstration of parathyroid glands and nodules.
        Radiology. 2000; 214: 393-402
        • Loney E.L.
        • Dick E.A.
        • Francis I.S.
        • et al.
        Localization of parathyroid nodules.
        Radiology. 2001; 218: 916-917
        • Shah S.
        • Win Z.
        • Al-Nahhas A.
        Multimodality imaging of the parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Minerva Endocrinol. 2008; 33: 193-202
        • Sukan A.
        • Reyhan M.
        • Aydin M.
        • et al.
        Preoperative evaluation of hyperparathyroidism: the role of dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy and ultrasound imaging.
        Ann Nucl Med. 2008; 22: 123-131
        • Dobrinja C.
        • Trevisan G.
        • Liguori G.
        Minimally invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy. Initial experience in a general surgery department.
        J Endocrinol Invest. 2009; 32: 130-133
        • Richard B.
        J Radiol. 2009; 90 ([in French]): 397-408
        • Auffermann W.
        • Guis M.
        • Tavares N.J.
        • et al.
        MR signal intensity of parathyroid adenomas: correlation with histopathology.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989; 153: 873-876
        • Kabala J.E.
        Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid.
        Eur J Radiol. 2008; 66: 480-492
        • Seelos K.C.
        • DeMarco R.
        • Clark O.H.
        • et al.
        Persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism: assessment with gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MR imaging.
        Radiology. 1990; 177: 373-378
        • Wakamatsu H.
        • Noguchi S.
        • Yamashita H.
        • et al.
        Parathyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI and 123I subtraction: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography.
        Nucl Med Commun. 2003; 24: 755-762
        • Ruf J.
        • Lopez H.E.
        • Steinmuller T.
        • et al.
        Preoperative localization of parathyroid glands. Use of MRI, scintigraphy, and image fusion.
        Nuklearmedizin. 2004; 43: 85-90
        • Harari A.
        • Zarnegar R.
        • Lee J.
        • et al.
        Computed tomography can guide focused exploration in select patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative sestamibi scanning.
        Surgery. 2008; 144: 970-976
        • Randall G.J.
        • Zald P.B.
        • Cohen J.I.
        • et al.
        Contrast-enhanced MDCT characteristics of parathyroid adenomas.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009; 193: W139-W143
        • Rotstein L.
        • Irish J.
        • Gullane P.
        • et al.
        Reoperative parathyroidectomy in the era of localization technology.
        Head Neck. 1998; 20: 535-539
        • Ernst O.
        J Radiol. 2009; 90 ([in French]): 409-412
        • Neumann D.R.
        • Esselstyn Jr., C.B.
        • MacIntyre W.J.
        • et al.
        Primary hyperparathyroidism: preoperative parathyroid imaging with regional body FDG PET.
        Radiology. 1994; 192: 509-512
        • Neumann D.R.
        • Esselstyn C.B.
        • Maclntyre W.J.
        • et al.
        Comparison of FDG-PET and sestamibi-SPECT in primary hyperparathyroidism.
        J Nucl Med. 1996; 37: 1809-1815
        • Beggs A.D.
        • Hain S.F.
        Localization of parathyroid adenomas using 11C-methionine positron emission tomography.
        Nucl Med Commun. 2005; 26: 133-136
        • Cook G.J.
        • Wong J.C.
        • Smellie W.J.
        • et al.
        [11C]Methionine positron emission tomography for patients with persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism after surgery.
        Eur J Endocrinol. 1998; 139: 195-197
        • Sundin A.
        • Johansson C.
        • Hellman P.
        • et al.
        PET and parathyroid L-[carbon-11]methionine accumulation in hyperparathyroidism.
        J Nucl Med. 1996; 37: 1766-1770
        • Otto D.
        • Boerner A.R.
        • Hofmann M.
        • et al.
        Pre-operative localisation of hyperfunctional parathyroid tissue with 11C-methionine PET.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2004; 31: 1405-1412
        • Rubello D.
        • Fanti S.
        • Nanni C.
        • et al.
        11C-methionine PET/CT in 99mTc-sestamibi-negative hyperparathyroidism in patients with renal failure on chronic haemodialysis.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006; 33: 453-459